Fire prevention and fighting measures in the const

2022-10-14
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Fire prevention and fighting measures in subway construction

in recent years, with the national economic construction, the base construction focuses on the development of new chemical materials, inorganic non-metallic new materials and metal new materials in the future global competition around the market, technology, capital and industrial transfer. The subway is under intense construction. There were several fire accidents during the construction. This reminds us that the fire department has to pay attention to the prevention and suppression of fires in subway construction. Now I would like to talk about some personal views on how to prevent and suppress fires in Subway Construction:

first, the subway construction has the following characteristics

(I) the main structure is surrounded by reinforcement as the skeleton, forming a tunnel, and there is no fixed fire-fighting facilities in the construction. Once a fire occurs, it is ventilated and closed due to underground ventilation, It is easy to form high temperature and thick smoke

(II) use electric fire more. Electric equipment such as lifting, welding and lighting are used in construction, with a large number and large power consumption. Open fire operation is often carried out during construction, which has a high fire risk

(III) combustible materials are concentrated in the decoration engineering stage. During interior decoration, most decoration materials and their packaging materials, auxiliary supplies, on-site processing by-products and other combustibles are stacked in a centralized manner. In case of fire, they will burn violently and produce a large amount of toxic gases

(customer demand is constantly changing IV) supporting facilities have not been installed, but the rapid temperature change test box and the multi factor comprehensive environmental test box such as temperature, humidity and vibration are in place. During construction, temporary power supply, water supply and other measures are generally taken for buildings, and most of the internal supporting facilities and equipment have not been installed in place and commissioned for use

(V) poor traffic conditions and few fire water sources. Affect the passage and parking of fire vehicles

(VI) the construction personnel are highly mobile and lack of fire safety knowledge and awareness

II. Fire prevention measures in subway construction

(I) strengthen education and training. The site safety management network should highlight the deployment of fire safety management network, set up full-time safety officers, and have the qualification certificate issued by the fire department after training. Special types of work (such as electricians, welders, gas cutters, etc.) must be trained and qualified in fire safety knowledge before they can work. All construction personnel should know common fire prevention knowledge and be able to operate and use fire-fighting equipment

(II) equip with necessary fire-fighting equipment. During construction, necessary fire-fighting equipment shall be provided according to relevant regulations. Special construction sites and processes can be operated only when fire-fighting equipment is in place and fire safety is ensured

(III) strengthen patrol. The full-time safety officer of the construction unit shall constantly patrol and supervise every day, and have account records. The local fire department shall also send personnel to patrol and guide regularly and irregularly, so as to find problems in time, solve problems in time, and eliminate fire hazards

(IV) the territorial fire squadron should be "six familiar" with the buildings under construction. Get familiar with the situation of the occupied roads, and formulate plans for the area and its surrounding areas, so as to know well and not panic

(V) the construction of municipal fire hydrants should be carried out simultaneously with the preliminary works of the building. The municipal department shall, according to the requirements of the planning department, carry out the construction of fire hydrant pipes in the development zone or newly-built community in advance or synchronously with the building to ensure the water supply for building fire during construction

III. fire characteristics of buildings in subway construction

in the process of subway construction, due to small space, poor ventilation conditions, narrow and curved passages, smoke soon fills the space after a fire, and it is difficult to dissipate. It is difficult to rescue, which is easy to cause a large number of casualties. Therefore, compared with above ground construction buildings, underground construction buildings have different characteristics:

(I) a large amount of smoke accumulates

first, the smoke accumulates for a long time, affecting the fire fighting action; Second, the visibility is low and the movement is very inconvenient; Third, severe hypoxia is easy to cause personnel suffocation; Fourth, it produces harmful gas, which directly threatens the life safety of personnel

(II) the temperature keeps rising and the pressure keeps increasing

first, in the enclosed space, due to the difficulty of heat dissipation, the temperature increases rapidly, and the temperature near the fire source often exceeds 1000 degrees. Due to the expansion of the air, the indoor pressure increases, affecting the fire fighting. Second, during the flow of high-temperature flue gas, combustibles are heated to reach the ignition point to form a regenerative fire source. Third, the flue gas with a temperature of more than 500 degrees contains a certain amount of combustible decomposition products. When encountering fresh air on the way through, it is very easy to produce a natural or sudden second fire. Fourth, the space pressure increases with the temperature rise. When the fire develops to a certain extent, it forms the fire wind pressure. Turn the original airflow underground into countercurrent and intensify the spread of the fire

(III) it is difficult for firefighters to put out the fire

first, the thick smoke billows, the toxic gas is diffuse, and the sight and breathing of attackers are limited, so it is difficult to go deep into the underground internal attack without reliable safety measures; Second, there are few safe entrances and exits, which makes it inconvenient to evacuate people and materials; Third, the radio waves are affected by the barrier of underground buildings, and the communication at the fire site cannot be guaranteed, and the commanders cannot grasp the underground situation in time; Fourth, firefighters should wear air respirators, carry lighting tools, and use safety ropes when going deep into underground buildings to save people or extinguish fires. The preparation time is relatively longer than that required for ground fire extinguishing

(IV) it is difficult to find the fire source

the underground tunnel has long longitudinal depth, large span, low visibility, tortuous and narrow internal channels, and there are often obstacles caused by stacking materials, which makes it difficult to detect the fire source

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